Various Drawings Used in Building Construction
A construction drawing, otherwise called plan, is the most important thing needed to start a construction project. It is used as idea generation and a guide for the construction process. It illustrates what is to be built and what the finished product will look like when it is completed by visually communicating the design and the information which is required to bring the project into reality to all the workers involved in the construction process.
A construction drawing communicates construction buildings, interior spaces, cabinets, furniture and other objects. It is a scaled, detailed and accurate representation of how the object looks, how it should be constructed and the materials to be used.
- Construction drawings represent the construction project as a whole.
- They are prepared by a team of designers.
- The drawing is prepared before the commencement of the bidding process in a conservative and traditional construction environment.
- It is an official contract document.
- It is subject to mark-ups, change orders, and redefining as the project shapes up.
There are different types of construction drawings categorized based on their functions. The five main categories which also have sub-types are:
- Architectural Drawing
- Structural Drawing
- Electrical Drawing
- Plumbing and Sanitary Drawing
- Finishing Drawings
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Architectural drawings provide complete view of a building. They demonstrate the location of a building and all its parts as well as where they will be placed. Architectural drawing include:
- Site Plan
- Working Plan
- Section Drawing
- Elevation Drawing
This is an aerial view of the construction site that includes the primary building and its adjoining constructions. It helps builders to understand the scope of construction activities and helps to identify the topography of the building, including roads, pavements, and other parts.
This is also called constructions drawing. It includes all the drawings required by the various teams to complete a project. It is technical and is intended to furnish all the necessary information required by a contractor to erect a structure.
Working plan shows the size, quantity, location, as well as the relationship of the building components.
Section drawing represents the material of construction to be used, heights and measurement of the different components of buildings, type of structural components such as type of slab and others.
This type of construction drawing represents the information of openings, size and shape of external surface, height of building and finish of the building after completion. It is made by having an aesthetic view of the building.
The structural drawing gives a complete view of the structure or building. It is often prepared by licensed structural engineers relying on input from architectural drawings. Structural drawing emphasizes load-carrying members such as steel beams, joists, framing materials, etc. of the structure.
This is a unique drawing as it does not address partition walls, plumbing, and mechanical systems, or other details like surface finishes. Structural drawings include:
- General Note
- Excavation Drawing
- Column Layout
- Plinth Beam Layout
- Lintel Beam Layout
- Roof Beam and Shuttering Layout
- Roof Slab Layout
This has to do with the codes and by laws of buildings. Though it has no drawings, the details of all the structural drawings such as concrete mix, lapping length, curing time, abbreviation, codes and other work procedures, are mentioned.
Excavation Drawing represents the footing excavation dimension, column position, footing plan and grid lines of column.
Column layout reinforces the design and pattern of the columns of the whole structure. It is divided floor wise and demarcates the exact size and distance between every column of the building. It makes it easier for the contractors to make sense of the whole building layout.
It represents the dimensions, position and section of plinth beam and the details of reinforcement in plinth beam.
This drawing represents the dimensions, position and section of lintel beam and the details of reinforcement in lintel beam.
This represents the details of reinforcement of roof beam, its section and shuttering details.
The main purpose of roof slab layout is to provide a detailed account of the floors, roof faces, and other surfaces that require precise edge information.
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It is a type of a drawing that describes the location and information of electrical wiring, sub-station, and fixtures. It explains the electrical load calculation. It gives information about lighting, power and communication for engineering or architectural project.
Plumbing and Sanitary Drawings
This is a technical drawing that illustrates the system for pumping water in and out of the building. Equipment, pipes, pumps, and drains, the nature and size of sinks to the location of gas are carefully illustrated in the drawing. It also indicates the position of sanitary, piping for water supply system, fixtures, and the process to connect every accessory.